An integrated circuit is an assembly of electronic components. It is also called a microelectronic circuit, a microchip, or a chip. It comprises of miniaturized active and passive electronic components. The active devices include transistors and diodes, and the passive devices include resistors and capacitors. These components are generally microscopic in size, and a chip that is a few square centimeters can contain millions of them. These components and their interconnections usually are fabricated onto a thin substrate made of semiconductor material known as a wafer.
The idea for the production of IC circuits was sparked by the invention of the transistor in 1974. Once engineers saw that they could make electronic devices that were much smaller and easier to work with, less expensive than vacuum tubes, much studier and more reliable, they began to make other devices such as capacitors and resistors. The most challenging part was to determine how to do the wiring between the devices.
Now industries called foundries fabricate multiple integrated circuits onto wafers. The packaging is the next step after production and is done by packaging industries. These wafers undergo a concise process of dicing in the packaging industries to produce individual circuits known as monolithic chips. The chips are then encapsulated into packages on chip carriers. The chip carriers are assembled or mounted onto motherboards to help devices work.
However, before assembly occurs, the chips have to be tested. A test socket is specially designed and used to check the functioning of a package. These packages are put together depending on the function they are expected to perform, from processing to memory, and more. The packages are put together differently, and sockets have to be designed to fit the package. Sockets take into account precise package specifications such as pin size, type and number, and even the package dimensions. Through testing, chips that aren’t working correctly are identified and eliminated before the assembly process. Packaging companies liaise with testing companies such as tts to get the sockets they need.
IC chips can store data and perform calculations using either digital or analog technology. Analog ICs are also called linear ICs. They generally use fewer components than digital ICs. They work with continuous values. They are able to accept the input of values of any kind and provide the output of another value. They are typically used in the amplification of audio and radio frequencies. Digital ICs, on the other hand, use logic gates and only work with zeroes and ones. On a digital IC, a low signal will result in a zero value, and a high signal will result in the value of one. Digital ICs are used in computers, most consumer electronic devices, and networking equipment.